Cannabis sativa, most commonly known as Hemp, produces a variety of compounds known as cannabinoids, as well as terpenes (aromatic oils). There are over 100 different cannabinoids found in this beautiful plant and the most abundant and studied is CBD. These cannabinoids are naturally occurring in hemp and are present in smaller amounts compared to CBD but studies are showing that they contain their own health benefits and have a synergistic effect when combined with CBD.
CBD has undergone many pre-clinical and human trial studies to determine its benefits, uses and side effects. More research is still coming out about CBD but so far it has been reported that it contains anti-inflammatory properties, it can help to reduce aches and pains, it promotes quality sleep and it calms anxiety. A study published in 2019 found that it can help to reduce seizures (when taken in high doses & combined with other anti-seizure medications) and it was discovered to be a potent antioxidant (more than vitamin E).
CBG is considered to be the "mother" to other cannabinoids. This is because CBG-A, the acidic form of CBG, breaks down to form CBG, CBD, THC, and CBC, when heated. Studies on CBG are ongoing and so far pre-clinical studies have found that it could provide potential benefits for many conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease. In a 2015 study, researchers examined the potential neuroprotective properties of CBG for conditions such as Huntington's Disease and it was observed that CBG acted as a neuroprotectant - protecting the nerve cells in the brain from more damage. And a 2020 study on the antibiotic potential of cannabis found that CBG has antibacterial properties.
CBN comes from the breakdown of the psychoactive cannabinoid THC, which happens with heat or light exposure. CBN activates the same receptor as THC (CB1 receptor) but it does not produce the same intoxicating effects like THC does. CBN was the very first cannabinoid to be isolated from cannabis plants and its therapeutic benefits are still being discovered. It is showing some potential benefits, such as sedative properties, neuro-protective properties, anti-inflammatory properties and in 2019 researchers found that CBN combined with CBD was able to reduce myofascial pain in rats.
CBC was discovered over 50 years ago and is a prominent cannabinoid in medical research. It doesn’t get as much attention, but CBC’s benefits are very promising. It is shown to have the ability to reduce inflammation in the gut. In a 2013 mouse study, CBC was also found to support brain function and a review published in 2016 found that CBC, as well as well as other cannabinoids, regulate sebum production and reduce sebaceous gland inflammation, showing great potential as an acne treatment.
CBDV is a cannabinoid that is only found in strains of cannabis that are high in CBD, such as the Hemp plant. To date, anticonvulsant effects of this cannabinoid have been reported in several animal models of seizure but there has yet to be any human trial studies to determine this.
Most famously known as THC, this cannabinoid is well-known for being responsible for the "high" associated with consuming cannabis. However, Hemp contains a very small percentage of THC (0.3% or less), which is not enough to feel the intoxicating effects of THC.
Not all CBD products contain these compounds and every cannabis/hemp plant will produce them in different amounts.
There are 3 different types of CBD extracts; full spectrum, broad spectrum and isolate. The main difference between these 3 is the amount of cannabinoids present. Full spectrum CBD is a whole plant extract that contains the naturally occurring compounds found in hemp, including small amounts of THC (0.3% or less). Broad Spectrum CBD is similar to full spectrum but it is THC-free, and CBD Isolate is a crystalline solid or powder extract that is 99% CBD and THC-free. Full Spectrum and Broad Spectrum CBD products can provide winder range of therapeutic benefits, as they contain other compounds that may be beneficial.
Disclaimer: this info and products are not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment of any ailment. Consult your doctor before starting a new supplement.